Serotype a of botulinum toxin is the form most commonly used for treatment of lower urinary tract dysfunction within the united states botulinum toxin is commonly available as botox r onabotulinumtoxina whereas in europe it is available as dysport r abobotulinumtoxina. Botulinum toxin seven immulologically distinct subtypes identified a g botulinum a toxin isolated in 1920s and purified in 1946 dr david scott 1973 effect of botulinum toxin on lateral rectus muscle of the monkey 1981 first application in humans treating strabismus botulinum a toxin botox approved in 1981 by fda. Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin produced by clostridium botulinum species of bacteria this powerful toxin which is the most poisonous substance known to mankind has been used in highly dilute concentrations in urology this review examines the various applications of botulinum toxin sub type a bta in the field of urology. Field the application of botulinum toxin in urology opens a window for urologists and urogynecologists to see an interesting garden through the treatment results of more clinical trials we learn more about how to apply botulinum toxin as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of lower urinary tract disorders. This book will be a very welcome addition to the urology library since it is the first book on the use of botulinum toxin bont in the genitourinary tract and is written and edited by two leading pioneers in the field michael chancellor and christopher smith international painful bladder foundation january 2012
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